Senin, 11 Juli 2011

Culture history of Lampung, Indonesia: Raden Intan

Culture history of Lampung, Indonesia:

Radin Intan The King Lampung that drain blood anti-colonialists

Raden Inten a glimpse of Struggle in Lampung in the face of the Dutch
Before the arrival of the Dutch to Lampung, Lampung is one of the areas under the influence of power from Banten (Java), Lampung it is due time, rich in spices. But upon arrival in the Netherlands, slowly Lampung can be controlled by the Dutch. The arrival of the Dutch to Indonesia, the main goal is trade while looking for spices.

Radin Intan resistance against Dutch colonial rule, the first conducted by Radin Intan I. Raden Intan I (1751-1828), is the ruler or the State Keratuan darah putih, based in Kahuripan. This area now includes the District of South Lampung regency mediation.
For the Netherlands, Radin Intan I regarded as being stubborn, he refused to obey what orders the Netherlands, even he also tends to resist from all the policies made by the Dutch government, such as the monopoly of the pepper trade.
Yet behind the attitude Radin Intan I, the Dutch treat Radin Intan I with the nature of the software. Leniency intentionally treated by the Dutch government (especially the Governor-General of the Netherlands, HW Daendels), because it recognizes the leadership Daendels Raden Intan I as a ruler in Lampung.
In addition, treat the Dutch in particular Daendels software is based on the divided attention of the Dutch, because Dutch attention devoted to preparation to face the threat of British troops. Later in the first quarter of this 19th century, the Dutch also have to face resistance Prince Diponegoro in Central Java (1825-1830).
With the inability Daendels in approaching Radin Intan I, they were finally Radin Intan I take steps for the Dutch is very dangerous, like a relationship of friendship with Daeng Gajah Putih from Tulang bawang.

Raden Intan was accidentally escape from the bonds of the Netherlands. With the actions taken this Raden Intan, indicating that Radin Intan I regarded by the Dutch as rebels, and will make a rebellion.
Given these concerns, the Dutch finally hold negotiations with Radin Intan I contents:
1. Radin Intan I willing to end the violence and help the Dutch government.
2. Raden Intan I will be recognized position, as during the reign of Governor-General HW Daendels.
3. Radin Intan I get a pension by f.1200 per year and his brothers, each for f.600 per year.
From the contents of the talks, the Dutch government gave promises to Radin Intan I, creating a peaceful atmosphere. But the atmosphere was peaceful, it did not take long, because the relationship between the Dutch government and Radin Intan I re-pointed. The causes sharpening relations between the two sides are due to the Dutch Government to unilaterally violate the peace agreement and openly resort to violence.
In early December 1825 the Dutch government sent emissaries to arrest Radin Intan I, by sending Gezaghebber Lelievre in Telukbetung with Lieutenant Misonius. The arrival of two Dutch people are equipped with 35 soldiers and 7 OPAS, moving towards the State Queen. Initially Radin Intan I welcome the second coming of the Dutch, and Radin Intan was willing to be brought to the Gulf Betung, but on condition Radin Intan requested within 2 days due to illness.
When two Dutch people are resting in the State of the Queen, was suddenly attacked by Radin Intan I dated December 13, 1825, and the Dutchmen were successfully disabled. The death toll hit Lelievre with a sergeant, while Lieutenant Misonius shot wound. With the defeat of the Netherlands is then temporarily calmed the situation in Lampung, since the Dutch began to devote his strength to face the assault of Prince Diponegoro. Radin Intan Three years later I got sick to death, while the throne as the leader in the Darah Putih Keratuan bequeathed to his son the Prince IMBA II.

Raden Imba II successor struggle against the Dutch.
Raden Imba II inherited the throne as Queen in Lampung was also inherited his father's properties are anti against Dutch colonialism, and tried to fight it. Anti-colonial attitude towards the Dutch also received support from the father in-law of Kiai Arya Natabraja and Head of Teratas Batin Mangundang Highways Top Inner Mangundang, as well as local people Semangka. During Raden Imba II served as the Queen of Lampung, he has ties to the outside of the vast palace, which is to establish friendly relations with the sultanate Linga which is realized with the sister of Sultan Linga marriage, besides that Raden Imba II also became friends with the Bugis sailors and Sulu.

With the fabric of friendship fostered Raden Imba with some areas outside of Lampung, creating fears in the Dutch army, because it is feared Raden Imba II to establish a force to invade the Netherlands. Apparently the Dutch allegations are true, Raden Imba II offensive in the Bay of Lampung. With the help of local people, Raden Imba II managed to defeat the Dutch forces near Kampung Muton. Attacks carried out Raden Imba II is to the detriment, because the Dutch government officials suffer losses, so the Assistant Resident of the Netherlands to Lampung JA Dubois asked the help of his army from Batavia, to quickly send help to quell the resistance Raden Imba II.
Reinforcements came to power five Ship Alexander and Dourga, 300 Dutch soldiers, and 100 soldiers Bugis. Reinforcements are under the command of Captain Hoffman and second leutnan Kobold. Dutch troops landed in Kalianda,south of Lampung,dated August 8, 1832. Dutch troops also headed Kesugihan Village and Negara Putih, but unfortunately the place has been abandoned by Raden Imba II. To vent his frustration, the Dutch burned all the houses in the village.

Raden Imba II who knew the incident immediately to build fortifications scattered in several areas, such as the King Gepeh, Pari, Bedulu, huwi perak, Merambung, than just, and Sakti. In order not to run out of food, Raden Imba II also built barns food supply, as well as to counterbalance the power of the Netherlands, Raden Imba II adds a weapon, a way to barter with the English power in Bengkulu. The battle against the Netherlands was again occurred on 9 September 1832 in the Mount Tanggamus. In battle, the Dutch troops under the command of Captain Hoffman. But in the resistance against the Dutch this time Raden Imba II troops returned victorious. Many of the Dutch troops who were killed, while Captain Hoofman injured. With the defeat, the Dutch troops eventually withdraw.

With the withdrawal of Dutch troops from the area of
​​Mount Tanggamus, the Dutch troops did not mean accepting defeat. That is precisely the Dutch troops build up the strength to avenge his defeat against Raden Imba II.
Captain Hoffman for the second time to lead the attack against Raden Imba II.
 This time Captain Hofman exert greater force, which is accompanied by 600 Dutch soldiers who were recruited from the forces that have been experienced in the fight against Prince Diponegoro. Captain Hoffman also received help from the army Lt. Vicq de Cumtich. The battle this time it can be said to be a big battle that occurred at the Fort King Gepei. because of both of them suffered huge losses, that is Raden Imba II forces lost 100 troops, the Dutch troops sedangan only 65 people, including Lieutenant Neuenborger and Letan Huiseman. However Raden Imba II can still successfully led his troops to defend the fortress of King Gepei. Similarly, the Dutch troops are still stuck and getting help troops under the command of Captain and Captain Pouwer Beldhouder. But both captains were killed.

Several times the defeat suffered by the Dutch troops in the face of any opposition, for the Dutch made a whip to send reinforcements bigger, so does the experienced Dutch resistance in the face several times by Raden Imba II. September 23, 1834, the Dutch government in Batavia re-transmit large amounts of aid, namely 21 officers (officers), and 800 special troops are equipped with big guns, such assistance under the leadership of Colonel Elout. Fortress King Gepei which has been used as hideouts Raden Imba II, the Dutch successfully destroyed and occupied, but raden Imba II, Raden Arya II and Kyai Natabraja-law managed to escape. Next Raden Imba II and some troops withdrew to the Sultanate of Linga at once sought refuge. But unfortunately, the place known by the Dutch. Linga Raja finally got pressure from the Dutch, whose contents do not give up when Raden Imba II, Linga Kingdom of the Netherlands will be under attack. Linga was finally handed Raden Imba II though reluctantly.
With the submission of Raden Imba II and some of his followers to the Dutch, they were arrested and taken to Batavia. At the time at Batavia's second-in-law, and upstream Raden IMBA II, Raden Raden balangnya Mangunang died. Raden IMBA II banished to the island of Timor. Raden IMBA II finally died on the island of Timor. While his pregnant wife returned to Lampung old.
With the death of  Raden IMBA II, then the power of Lampung is entirely in Dutch hands. During that's approximately 15 years old, from Lampung quiet rebellion.
Raden Imba’s wife who have been pregnant, later gave birth to a male as an orphan, because Raden Imba II has died. Children are named Radin Intan II. He traces his ancestors to continue as an anti-colonialism.

Radin Inten II
Raden Intan II, the successor to the royal blood of the anti-Dutch colonial Lampung

Raden Inten II

Radin Inten II was born in the village of Marga Kuripan Dantara (now penengahan, South Lampung district) in 1834 and died in Merambung dated October 5, 1856
Radin intensity II is also Queen of Lampung as well as warlords. He is also a powerful thinker. Radin Inten II is known in the event of war in the fortress, Merambung against the Dutch colonialists in 1851. Dutch troops led by Captain Yuch with 400 hosts attacked and tried to seize the fortress Radin Intan II. Radin Inten II struggled to lead the people in Lampung to defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity. His struggle is supported widely by the people of Lampung and get help from other areas such as the Bantam.
he nurtured and raised by a mother and her family with a secret. He was born in the forest in 1831. When the fort fell to the reign of King Gepei Netherlands in 1834, he was 3 years old. As a child Radin Intan II suffused the atmosphere of war against the Dutch and their allies.
In 1850, Radin Intan II has been the age of 15 years, because he as the only child of Raden Imba II, so he had the right to pass the throne to lead darah putih Keratuan in Lampung, so he was sworn in as the ruler of the Queen of State.
He began arranging all facilities and infrastructure that have been damaged by his father's resistance against the Dutch. Among Radin Intan II repair the damaged castle, and she began to rebuild the new fortresses of them in Pole Land, Causeway Sentok, Kahuripan, and Salaitahunan. All of the fortress is equipped with a moat and secret tunnels. While the weapons are still very simple to measure now like a dagger, the dagger, sword, and large and small cannon. While the army was divided into small units consisting of 40 persons led by a commander of soldiers, as well as other facilities are also prepared as a soup kitchen or pejunjongan (to prop fighters).
Defense focused on Mount Rajabasa, which was militarily very strategic location of this mountain in the face of any opponent's attack because it was surrounded by fortifications, such as west and north there is the Citadel Merabung, Galah tanah, Pematang Sentok, than just, and Salaitahunan. East there is the Citadel Bendulu and Silver Hawi, while at the feet of the mountain there is a fortress of King Gepei Cempaka and Kahuripan Lama.
Radin Intan II lunge almost resembles his father, that ally with some important figures such as Singabranta, Wak Maas, and Haji Wakhia, as well as people from Marga Queen and the Plain. Raising goal is to increase troop strength. For the Netherlands, football exploits performed by Radin Intan II is considered dangerous. Therefore the Dutch to take action that seeks to persuade and conduct diplomacy with Radin Intan II. By the terms of a fairly promising, the Netherlands tried to persuade Radin Intan II in order to avoid hostility with the Dutch, in return would be forgiven, offered education costs, and so on.
But Radin Intan II rejects all such inducements. Because the Dutch rejected the offer, then the Dutch in 1851 to send 400-strong army soldiers led by Captain tuch directly. Dutch troops were immediately attacked / raided Fort Merambung, but unfortunately the Dutch attack was a failure. And there are victories in the Radin Intan II.
In 1853, the Dutch government again filed a peace that Radin Intan II contents in order to stop the assault. This time the peace proposal accepted by Radin Intan II, and Radin Intan II was stopped a battle with the Dutch, so the atmosphere becomes calm. But unfortunately the atmosphere of calm and even then only lasts 2 years ie until 1855. And in 1856 Radin Intan II renewed attacks.
Resistance to the resistance of the dutch next, whether conducted by Radin Intan I, Raden IMBA II, and Radin Intan II, the Dutch government was always on the part of the loser. Therefore the Dutch government wanted to exert as much as possible reinforcements requested from Batavia, which aim to stop the opposition in the darah putih Keratuan Lampung.

In 1856, reinforcements from Batavia is really coming. For reinforcements this time under the leadership of Colonel Walleson assisted Major Nauta, Van Oostade Major, and Major AWP Weitzel. Reinforcements are / or who called this expedition consisted of nine ships of war, three ships carrying equipment, dozens of boats mayung, and junks by transporting 1,000 troops and 350 officers, 12 big guns, and 30 units of engineers. With the arrival of reinforcements, the Dutch troops landed to seize the island Sikepal (ie Old Cape Bay area), on August 10, 1856, two days later the Dutch-led forces issued an ultimatum to Radin Intan II and led other people to surrender within 5 days .
From the Island Sikepal Walseson troops then poised to attack Fort Bendulu, the attack took place on August 16, 1856 that is through regional Ujau and Recognize. Bendulu fort can be mastered next day without a fight. Then the Dutch troops moved toward Fort Hawi Perak, at about 8 am on August 18, 1856. But the news circulated, Fort Bendulu been retaken by troops Radin Intan II. With so Walleson and his men immediately turned back toward the fort Bendulu. Beteng Bendulu retaken by Walleson and subsequently used as a base (headquarters) Dutch troops in a raid into the fortifications Radin Intan others.
In the attacks on the fort than just, Walleson troop strength to break into three groups that move through three different directions: The first troops led by Colonel Walleson moving from the south coast continues to circle through the eastern slopes of Mount Rajabasa to the north. These two forces led by Major van Costade moving from the south coast (Pulau Palubu, Kalianda, and Way Urang) looped through the west and north slopes toward Kelau and Kunyaian, to seize the fort and then to Fort Merambung than just. Third troops led by Major Nauta move from mediation through the jungle to seize Fort Salaitahunan and finally to the fortress than just.
The next day on August 19, 1856, troops captured the fort Walleson Hawi Perak, but for one thing, the weather is bad, then Walleson troops were forced to turn back to Bendulu. While the fort was burned Hawi Perak. After burning the fort, the troops then joined forces with Major Walleson Costade van that travels through the western slopes Rajabasa. Then on August 27, 1856, Dutch troops led by Van Costade Walleson and captured Fort Merambung, Galah soil, and Pematang Sentok. Fortress Merambung been won at 7 am and Castle Causeway Sentok seized without resistance.
At the time the land was seized Fort Galah, Dutch troops have a pretty fierce resistance, because the troops are ready to survive Radin Intan II, in defending the fort with cannon arms and landmines. However, finally at around 09:00 am Fort Galah successfully captured the Dutch troops. Meanwhile, the Dutch troops led by Major Nauta painstakingly captured the fort Annual Salai. With mastered Fortress and Citadel Galah Annual Salai, it opened the way towards the Citadel than just.

Dated August 27, 1856, Fort was attacked by the Dutch than just starting, at around 12 noon. The reason attacked this fort, because it has a fairly large logistical supplies are maintained by Raden Intan II and his army. But due to unequal terms of weaponry that the fort than just been won by the Netherlands at 05.00 in the morning. Radin Intan and her friends like Haji Makhia, Lions Branta, and Wak Maas managed to escape.
With his running Radin Intan II and some of his friends, the Dutch troops hit after him. With the pursuit of Dutch troops, then Radin Intan II conduct guerrilla armies to face the Dutch. Dutch troops had finally made irritated by Raden Intan II. Therefore, to capture Radin Intan II in hiding, the Dutch troops to do it with a variety of ways to ask where the existence Radin Intan to the population or some women, so the presence of Radin Intan II, can be known by the Dutch, however Radin Intan II, can not be captured because the Raden Intan hiding always moving, from one place to another place.
With the difficulty to capture Radin Intan, the Dutch began to blindly is doing in ways that are not in place like catching brother or closest people Radin Intan II like brothers comrade Radin Intan II.
Then on 9 September 1856 in conjunction with Kiai Wakhia death penalty, and in the ensuing battle Wak Maas killed by Dutch troops, and eventually Radin Intan II to struggle alone.

Because the Netherlands is still the difficulty in capturing Radin Intan II, then the only way the Dutch do the trick, namely by borrowing Lampung people themselves. Dutch troops managed to persuade the head of Kampung tataan Udik, names, Raden Ngarupat.
Raden Ngarupat eventually consumed Dutch persuasion, he also put through the Dutch command in making ruse. The trick Raden Intan II Radin Ngarupat invited to dinner at his house. When Raden Ngarupat are facing the dish, the Dutch troops immediately ambushed.
Radin Intan II is accompanied by his cousin directly provide resistance. But unfortunately with unequal strength, finally Radin Intan II fall. With the death of Radin Intan II, its resistance to the Dutch for the Dutch small for easy to defeat.
Radin Inten II was a national hero of Indonesia. His name is immortalized as an Radin Inten II Airport in Branti area, South Lampung, Lampung.

 Bibliography :

Graves Site Radin Intan II, Kalianda
South of Lampung, Indonesia

1. A.H. Nasution, About the War of Independence, Volume 1, AD Disjarah in cooperation with Space, Bandung, 1973.
2. Dean G. Pruitt, et al, Social conflict theory, the Student Press, Yogyakarta, 2004.
3. Radin Intan National Hero II, Leaflets, Government of Lampung Province, Department of Education, 2004.
4. Dictionary Compiler Team, Big Indonesian dictionary, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1990

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